Fluid flow is affected by quantum effects in water, Water is the basis of all life on earth. The structure consists of only two hydrogen atoms which are bound to one oxygen atom. But, its behavior is unique among liquids, and scientists still do not understand the origin of its characteristic properties.

Because the polymer that filled dissolves in water, the aqueous solution becomes thicker than expected. This high viscosity used in the human body.

The lubricating and shock-absorbing properties of synovial liquids, aqueous solutions, and charged biopolymers allow us to bend, stretch, and compress our joints throughout our lives without damaging them.

Engineering sheds new light on the viscosity of aqueous solutions. They have shown that, contrary to the traditional view that disgusting interactions between polymers alone are responsible for increased viscosity, the nuclear quantum effect between water molecules also plays a role.

So far, our understanding of polymer aqueous solutions has relied on a theory that has treated the water itself as a background, the researchers said. Our study shows that water-water interactions play an important role. The same can be applied to other physical and chemical processes that affect biology.

Water extracts its unique properties from hydrogen bonds, short-lived bonds between one oxygen atom from one water molecule and another hydrogen atom, which dissolves and changes one hundred thousand billion times per second.

This compound gives liquid water a short three-dimensional structure.

It has long known that water becomes thicker when the polymer filled dissolves. Viscosity affected by molecular size and also by charge.

The reason why charged polymers increase viscosity more than neutral attributed to the repulsive polymer-like charges. But in this study, EPFL researchers found that electric charges also interact with water molecules and change the interaction between water and water, which further inhibits the flow of solution.

The researchers measured viscosity by noting how long different solutions had taken to flow through narrow tubes. They also use special laser technology developed in laboratories to study water-water interactions in the same solution at the molecular level.

They found that polymers make hydrogen bonding networks neater, which in turn correlates with increased viscosity.

The researchers then repeated the experiment with heavy water (D2O), a molecule that is almost identical to light water (H2O) but with different hydrogen bonds. They found a big difference in water-water interaction and viscosity. Because polymers reject the same way in both light and heavy water, they conclude that this difference must result from a small difference in the interactions of the two molecules, which means that the quantum nucleus played. Effect.

Their finding that the adhesiveness of polymer solutions charged due to the effects of nuclear quantum in water has fundamental implications. Water is everywhere, explained by researchers.

It makes up about 60% of the human body. This insight into the properties of water and interactions with other molecules, including biomolecules, will prove useful in the development of new technologies not only in health and life sciences but also in materials and environmental sciences.