Physicists have imagined that nanoscale electrons which flow like water thick (thickness), as water flows through a tube. The long-awaited, but only now first-hand presents the strange new behavior of electrons is important for future electronic devices.
From the roaring waves to the spinning vortex, the fluid flow can be very high. These different phenomena are the result of many collisions that occur between liquid-forming particles and explained by the physics of hydrodynamics.
Although charged, electrons usually pass through conductors like gases at random without repelling each other. This is because most cables made of very damaged material, and electrons that penetrate the inside are more likely to experience many impurities and imperfections.
To make electrons flow as liquids require more sophisticated conductors, such as a single graphene atom with the atomic thickness that can be very pure.
The theory shows that liquid electrons can perform cool shows that cannot be ballistic or diffused. But, to prove that electrons can form a liquid state, we want to visualize the flow.
But, the representation of the hydrodynamic flow of electrons in a material such as a graphene is not easy because it requires special techniques that are strong enough to look into the material and soft enough not to interfere with the flow of electrons.
This device formed into a channel that directs the flowing electrons, like a tube that controls the flow of water. And as water flows through a tube, it observed that electrons in the graphene flow in the middle of the channel are faster and slower along the wall, which is a characteristic of hydrodynamic flow.
This work shows that conventional fluid models can be imitated by electrons. This can be useful for making new types of electronic devices, including low-power devices where the hydrodynamic flux reduces electrical resistance.
Data centers and consumer electronics absorb more energy, and in the face of climate change, finding ways to move electrons with lower resistance is very important, researchers say.