Nicer from Nasa offers the best pulsar measurements, Using NICER data, the scientists obtained the first accurate and reliable measurement of the size of the pulsar and its mass, as well as the first hotspot map on its surface.
The relevant Pulsar J0030 + 0451 (in short J0030) located in an isolated area within 1,100 meters in the Pisces constellation.
When measuring heart rate and pulse proportion, NICER found that the shape and position of millions of degrees of hotspots on the surface of the pulsar were far more bizarre than before thought.
Pulsars discovered more than 50 years ago as a star flare that collapses into a solid core and attaches to something we cannot see on Earth. With NICER, we can explore the nature of these solid remnants in ways that before seemed impossible.
Pulsars, the class of neutron stars, spin hundreds of times per second and emit energy rays at us with each rotation. J0030 rotates 205 times per second.
For decades, scientists have been trying to find out how pulsars work. In the simplest model, the pulsar has a strong magnetic field that shaped like a small magnet.
The field is so strong that it tears particles off the surface of the pulsar and accelerates them. Some particles follow the magnetic field and hit the opposite side, warming the surface and creating hot spots on the magnetic poles.
The team found that the pulsar is approximately 1.3 times the mass of the sun and measures 25.4 kilometers (15.8 miles). Cole Miller, professor of astronomy at the University of Maryland (UMD), who led the second team, found that J0030 was about 1.4 times the mass of the sun and larger and about 26.2 miles wide.
The pulsars are so dense that their gravity distorts the close space-time relationship of the universe, as explained by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, as does a trampoline bowling ball stretching the surface. Space-time is so distorted that light turns away from us at the curves and turns pulsars before our eyes.
This makes the star appear bigger than that, and the effect also means that hot spots can never be completely gone when they switch to the other side of the star. NICER measures the arrival of each pulse X-ray with an accuracy of more than one hundred nanoseconds, which is about 20 times higher than before, so scientists can take advantage of this effect for the first time.
The unprecedented X-ray measurements from NICER have enabled us to carry out the most accurate and reliable pulsar size calculations to date with an uncertainty of less than 10%.
But with ovals of various sizes and temperatures, UMD Deepthought2 offers supercomputers. They found two possible configurations and the same possibility.
Previous theoretical predictions or show that the location and shape of the hotspot might be different. But, the J0030 study was the first to map this surface property.
The main scientific purpose of NICER is the determination of the mass and dimensions of several pulsars. With this information, scientists will finally be able to decipher the state of matter in the nucleus of neutron stars, which destroyed by enormous pressure and density that cannot be repeated on Earth.
NICER is on a mission to research astrophysics in the NASA Explorers program, which uses an innovative, optimized and effective management approach in the field of heliophysics and astrophysics to offer frequent space flight opportunities for world-class exploration.