Nasa researchers Discover the physics of the sun with the Parker solar probe, For almost a year and a half, Parker Solar Probe has provided gigabytes of data about the sun and its atmosphere.

The research team provides clues to the processes behind the release of material from the sun, solar wind and solar storms that are less common that can disrupt technology and harm astronauts, as well as new ideas from cosmic dust that create meteorite rains from Geminid.

The solar wind carries the sun’s magnetic field with it and forms cosmic time throughout the solar system as it flows from the sun at a speed of about one million miles per hour. Some of Parker Solar Probe’s main scientific goals are to identify the mechanism that drives solar wind into space at high speed.

Animation of data from the WISPR instrument on Parker Solar Probe. The Sun is at the left of the animation, and Jupiter is highlighted in red. Credits: Naval Research Laboratory/Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab

One clue is solar wind disturbance, which can direct processes that heat and speed up the wind. This structural bag of dense material has recorded in data from previous missions of several decades.

They are many times larger than the earth’s magnetic field and extend more than tens of thousands of kilometers in space. This means that this structure can globally compress the Earth’s magnetic field if it collides with it.

Parker’s solar probe measures the structure of the solar wind better than before near the sun. Both distant images and in-situ instruments used to measure structures as they travel across spacecraft.

NASA’s STEREO-A spacecraft, with its unique vantage point away from Earth, observed the Sun’s outer atmosphere as Parker Solar Probe flew through it in November 2018, giving scientists another perspective on structures in this region. Credits: NASA/STEREO/Angelos Vourlidas

From his perspective, around 90 degrees from Earth, STEREO-A can see the crown area where Parker is flying, allowing Viall to combine measurements in new ways and get a better view of the solar wind structure as they flow from the sun

Also to images from Parker’s solar investigation, scientists can now better examine magnetic disturbances in the solar wind.

The Parker instrument also sheds new light on processes unseen in the solar wind, revealing an active system near the sun.

Parker Solar Probe measured sudden reversals in the Sun’s magnetic field. These events, called “switchbacks,” may provide clues to the processes that heat the Sun’s outer atmosphere to millions of degrees. Credits: NASA/GSFC/CIL/Adriana Manrique Gutierrez

The exact origin of the switches is uncertain, but they can be signatures of a process that heats the sun’s outer atmosphere, crown, up to millions of degrees, hundreds of times hotter than the surface visible underneath.

The reason for this opposite temperature rise is a long-standing topic in solar technology, which called the secret of coronal heating and related to the way the solar wind feeds and accelerates.

Together with the solar wind, the sun also emits a separate cloud of material, called the coronal mass ejection or CME. WEE is denser and sometimes faster than solar winds and can also have cosmic meteorological effects on Earth or cause satellite problems.

CME is known to be difficult to predict. Some of them are completely invisible from Earth or from STEREO-A – two positions where we have tools that can be recognized by the CME from a distance because they come out of the sun from the perspective of both spacecraft.

Even if they discovered by instruments, it is not always possible to predict which CME will disrupt the earth’s magnetic field and cause cosmic meteorological effects because magnetic structures play an important role in cloud material.

Our best experience in understanding the magnetic properties of CME based on the accurate determination of the solar region from which CME originates, which means that an outbreak of a type called CME stealth poses a unique challenge for weather forecasting.

Stealth CME saw in coronographic instruments that only see the sun’s outer atmosphere, but do not leave clear signatures for image breakdown on solar discs, making it difficult to determine exactly where they came from.

But, during the first Parker Solar Probe solar source in November 2018, the spacecraft hit by one of these STE CME.

This measurement not only provides a glimpse of CME near the sun but can also help scientists trace STEMS back to its source.

Understanding how solar fire produces populations of seed particles that eat particle events can help you predict when such events can occur and improve their model of movement in space.

The WISPR instrument from Parker Solar Probe designed to capture detailed images of weak crowns and solar wind. But they also built another structure that was hard to see: a dusty road that was 10,000 km behind the asteroid orbit of Phaethon and produced Geminid meteor showers.

These traces of pepper dust adorn the Earth’s atmosphere when our planet crosses the Phaeton orbit every December and the great show we call Geminid burns and produced.

Although scientists have long known that Phaeton was the mother of the twins, it was never possible to see the true traces of dust. It is very weak and very close to the sun in the sky and, despite some efforts, has never raised by a telescope before. But, WISPR developed to detect weak structures near the sun. The first direct look at the dust trail of WISPR provides new information about its properties.

With three orbits, Parker’s investigation will continue to explore the sun to find 21 sunflowers that close.

The next orbital change will take place during the Venus flight on December 26, which will bring Parker about 18.6 million miles from the surface of the Sun to the next approach to the Sun on January 29, 2020. He will never do this indirect measurement, with a more measurable environment up close than ever before, we can hope to learn more about this phenomenon and discover new problems.

Parker Solar Probe is part of NASA’s Living with the Star program to explore aspects of the Earth’s Sun system that have a direct impact on life and society.

The Live with the Star program managed by Godard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Johns Hopkins APL designs build and operate spacecraft.