The first commercial nanopores from DNA sequencer was launched by Oxford Nanopores Technologies. Based on transmembrane proteins that are developed synthetically.
Researchers are trying to expand this principle and build larger pores to adapt proteins for sensory purposes. However, the biggest challenge is a limited understanding of the design of artificial proteins.
Or, a new technique is developed that is based on artificial DNA folding into complex structures, called 3D origami techniques, which were first described by the AC group in 2009 to build nanostructures that mimic complexes that occur naturally and expand.
Using a powerful optical microscope, researchers can monitor the flow of molecules through individual nanopores.
By inserting controllable stops in the pore, it is also possible to selectively control the flow of protein-sized molecules and to show the bio sensitivity of the trigger molecules without real-time labeling.
Finally, the pores are equipped with a set of controllable valves, which make it possible to insert them into a membrane with certain signaling molecules.
In the future, this mechanism will allow the placement of sensors specifically in diseased cells and diagnosis at the individual cell level.