Reversible conversion of 3D lipid vesicles into 2D ultra-thin nanosheets, The astonishing amount of the latest technology and new technical applications goes hand in hand with advances in material science.

The design and manipulation of nanoscale materials (ie on the order of billions of meters) have become a hot topic. In particular, the nanosheet, which is an ultra-thin two-dimensional planar structure with a surface of several micrometers up to millimeters, has recently attracted much attention because of its extraordinary mechanical, electrical and optical properties.

For example, organic nanosheets have great potential as biomedical or biotechnological tools, while inorganic nanosheets can be useful for storing and harvesting energy. 3D lipid vesicles into 2D ultra-thin nanosheets.

3D vesicles consist of a lipid bilayer and spontaneously form in aqueous solutions. A fluorescence confocal microscopic image is shown to the right (scale bar: 10 μm).

Scientists have used various experiments to clarify the mechanisms and molecular interactions that make this reversible transformation possible. Flat lipid bilayers are usually unstable in water because some hydrophobic (waterproof) tails exposed at the edges produce much more stable vesicles.

But, the E5 peptide, when folded into a helical structure by PAA-g-Dex, can break the membrane of this vesicle to form 2D nanowires. These connection pairs joined into a ribbon-like structure along the edge of the nanosheet. This is the key to stabilizing it.

The leaves can be transformed back into round vesicles by destroying a belt-like structure. This can be done, for example, by adding sodium poly salt (vinyl sulfonic acid) which changes the shape of the helical E5.

The edges of the lipid nanosheets are stabilized by a self-assembled molecular belt composed of PAA-g-Dex, shown in yellow and green, and the E5 peptide, shown in red (scale bar: 10 μm).

Scientists’ experiments show that the nano list is very stable, flexible and thin; These are useful properties for biomembrane research and application.

For example, the 2D-3D conversion process can be used to encapsulate molecules such as drugs in vesicles, turn them into leaves, and then convert them back into balls. Lipid vesicles used both in basic research and in practical applications in the pharmaceutical, nutrition and cosmetics fields.

The ability to control the formation of nanofibers and vesicles will be useful in this area. No doubt, increasing our ability to manipulate the nanoscopic world will lead to positive macroscopic changes in our lives.