A new formula opens the solar energy from the dark side, Most solar collectors now capture sunlight and only convert it to electricity from the side of the sky. If the dark bottom part of the solar module can also change the sunlight reflected from the earth, even more electricity can be generated.

With bilateral solar cells, the panel can now be installed vertically on land or on the roof and even horizontally like a canopy at a gas station. However, it is not known exactly how much electricity this panel can produce or how much money it can save.

The new thermodynamic formula shows that two-phase cells, which consist of two-sided panels, produce an average of 15 to 20% more sunlight than electricity from the current single-sided single-cell solar panel, taking into account various fields such as grass, sand, and others. Concrete and dirt.

This formula consists only of simple triangles, but many years of modeling and research are needed to transform very complex physics problems into these simple, elegant formulations.

These results can be summarized with technology that is expected to be developed in the next 20 to 30 years.

This technology has been very successful, but we now know that we can no longer significantly increase its efficiency or reduce costs. Our formula will guide and accelerate the development of two-phase technology on a faster time scale.

This paper can correct mathematics on time: Experts estimate that by 2030, two-phase solar cells will reach nearly half of the global market share of solar modules.

The formula shows that the increase in efficiency of two-phase solar cells increases with the light reflected from the surface. For example, light reflected from concrete will convert more energy than surfaces with vegetation.

The researchers used this formula to recommend a better two-sided design for panels on agricultural land and window buildings in densely populated cities. Transparent and double-sided panels allow solar energy to be produced on agricultural land without producing shadows that will inhibit crop production. Meanwhile, building a two-phase window for buildings will help the city use more renewable energy.

The formula described in this document is detailed and can be used by companies who decide to design a two-phase cell.