Researchers found how the cells are learn to count, One of the wonders of cell biology is symmetry. Mammalian cells have a nucleus and cell membrane, and most people have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Trillions of mammalian cells achieve this uniformity, but some consistently break down this form to perform unique functions.
In experiments with genetically modified mice, the research team has ruled out a mechanism that scientists have long believed to control the amount of hair structure called cilia that protrudes from outside each mammalian cell.
They concluded that control over the number of cilia could be used rather than the more common processes in non-mammalian species.
Eyelashes are ancient structures that first appeared in unicellular organisms as tiny hairy “toes” that acted as motors to move cells or antennas to understand the environment. Almost all human cells have at least one eyelash that captures physical or chemical signals. Some special types of cells in humans, such as, for example, cells lining the airways and reproductive organs have hundreds of eyelashes on their surface that make waves to move fluid through the system.
The cell contains two parent centrioles, each multiplying itself, so that the two new cells receive a pair of centrioles, the oldest of the two centrioles then continues to form the base of the eyelashes. However, multicellular cells form a unique structure called deuterosomes, which act as photocopiers for the production of tens to hundreds of centrioles, enabling these cells to produce many eyelashes.
The researchers were surprised to find that genetically modified mice have the same amount of cilia in cells as mice with deuterosomes, eliminating the central role of deuterosomes in controlling the amount of cilia.
For example, some cells lining the trachea have 200-300 cells per cell. The researchers also found that cells without deuterosomes can produce new centrioles as fast as cells with them.
With these surprising results, the researchers designed mouse cells that did not have deuterosomes and parent centrioles, and then counted the amount of cilia formed in multicellular cells.
Although unusual in mammals, the so-called “new generation of centrioles” is not new to the animal kingdom. Some species, such as small flatworm planetariums, do not have parent centrioles and depend on the generation of centriol de novo to make eyelashes with which they move.
In further experiments with genetically modified mice, Holland found that all spontaneously produced centrioles gathered in cell regions rich in fibrogranular material, a protein component needed to build centriol.
He suspects that the proteins in this poorly understood cell area contain the basic elements needed to build centriol and ultimately to control the amount of cilia that are formed. Everything else, deuterosomes and even parental centrioles, are not absolutely necessary, researchers say.
A better understanding of the mechanisms that limit the amount of cilia in human cells could potentially stimulate efforts to treat cilia, he said, and set drug targets.