Maxwell’s electromagnetism has developed on a smaller scale

More than one hundred and fifty years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field.

Maxwell’s electromagnetism has developed on a smaller scale, More than one hundred and fifty years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of dynamic electromagnetic fields (1865).

Twenty original equations (now elegantly reduced to four), the boundary conditions for interfaces and electronic reaction functions (dielectric permeability and magnetic permeability) form the core of our ability to manipulate fields and electromagnetic light.

To ask ourselves what our life is like without Maxwell’s equality, we must try to represent our lives without the most modern science, communication and technology.

On a large scale (macro), the mass response function and classical boundary conditions are sufficient to describe the electromagnetic response of a material. However, if we look at phenomena on a smaller scale, non-classical effects become important.

The problem is that electronic length scales are the basis for non-classical phenomena and are not part of the classical model. The electronic length scale can be seen as a drilling radius or grid distance in solid particles: a small scale that is relevant for quantum effects.

The parameter D plays a role similar to ε permeability, but for the interface. For numerical modeling, all you have to do is pair each interface with two materials with the Feibelman-coupled d parameter and solve the Maxwell equation with the new boundary conditions.

On the experimental side, the authors examine film-related nanoresonators, a fundamental multiscale architecture. The experimental template was chosen because of non-classical characters. When we designed our experiment, we were fortunate enough to find the right geometry that allowed us to observe clearly expressed non-classical features that were unexpected and interesting to everyone.

This property ultimately allows us to measure the parameter d, which is difficult to calculate for some important plasmonic materials such as gold (as in our case).

These new models and experiments are important for basic research and also for various applications. This makes an unexplored link between electromagnetism, material science and condensed matter physics, which can lead to additional theoretical and experimental knowledge in all related fields, including chemistry and biology.

This work focuses the application on the possibility of designing optical responses outside the classical mode to investigate how more energy can be obtained from radiators using antennas.


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