Now scientists understand chromatin’s role in cancer and other diseases, Cells contain genetic instructions for all organisms. This genomic information is managed and processed by the chromatin complex machine, a mixture of DNA and protein in chromosomes, whose function and role in disease are increasingly in demand by scientists.
The researchers found that chromatin folded into different tree domains along the chromatin spine. These small and large areas are like mixed forest trees growing from the forest floor. The overall structure is 3D, micro-sized forest.
Chromatin is responsible for packaging DNA into the cell nucleus. In humans, this is about two meters of DNA in each cell. Recent work shows that chromatin in individual cells is more structured and hierarchical than previously thought. By learning how chromatin works correctly, you can better understand what’s wrong with cancer and other diseases.
By integrating theoretical and experimental work, we have created a new folding picture of chromatin with which we can see how the 3D genome is arranged at the level of a single cell.
If genes are hardware, chromatin is the software, researchers say: if the structure changes chromatin, this can change the processing of information stored in the genome, but the genes themselves don’t change.
Understanding chromatin folding is the key to understanding cell differentiation and cancer incidence.
Advances in genomics, imaging and new information technology now enable scientists to better understand how chromatin works.
The researchers used a partial wave microscope (PWS), an optical image developed by Backman and colleagues, to look deeply into living cells and change the perception of chromatin packaging. They also use electronic images. “Our paradigm shift in folding chromatin is an important element that is missing in the holistic view of the structure of the genome,” said Kai Huang, the first author of this study.