Cold Neptune and two super-earth orbiting nearby stars, Cold Neptune and the two potentially habitable worlds are part of the cache of five newly discovered exoplanets and eight exoplanet candidates found in orbit near the Red Dwarves.
Two potentially habitable planets are in the orbits of GJ180 and GJ229A, which are the closest stars to the Sun, making them the main targets for next-generation space and land telescopes. Both are super earths with at least 7.5 and 7.9 times the mass and orbital period of our planets after 106 and 122 days respectively.
Planet Neptune mass orbiting GJ433 at a distance where surface water is likely to freeze is likely to be the first of its kind to be a realistic candidate for direct imaging in the future. The newly discovered world uses the radial velocity method to find planets. This takes advantage of the fact that the star’s gravity not only affects the planet’s orbit, but also the gravity of the planet. This creates small waves in stellar orbits that can be detected with modern instruments.
Because of its smaller mass, red dwarfs are the main class of stars where planets can be found on Earth using this technique.
Cold and smaller than our sun, red dwarfs – also known as M dwarfs – are the most common stars in galaxies and the main star class known to have planets on Earth. In addition, compared to other types of stars, red dwarves can take planets at the right temperature to have liquid water on its surface in a orbit that is much narrower than those in “habitable zones” around other types of stars.
Many planets orbiting red dwarfs in the habitable zone are well sealed, which means that their time around their axes coincides with the time they orbit their host star. This is comparable to our moon’s attachment to the earth, which means that we only see one side from here.
GJ180d is the closest super-earth climate that is not bound to its star, which will likely increase the possibility of taking and maintaining life.
Another potentially habitable planet, GJ229Ac, is the super-earth closest to us. It is in a system where the parent star has a satellite in brown dwarfs. Sometimes they are called failed stars. Chocolate dwarfs cannot maintain hydrogen fusion. Chocolate dwarf in this system, GJ229B, is one of the first chocolate dwarfs in existence. It is not known whether they can accommodate extrasolar planets themselves, but this planetary system is a perfect case study of how extrasolar planets develop into star-shaped brown dwarf systems.
By combining data from many telescopes, the number of observations and time axis increases and instrumental distortion is minimized.