Shaping of the electric field from atosecond pulses, Chemical reactions are determined at the most basic level by the appropriate electronic structure and dynamics.

Driven by stimuli such as light radiation, electrons are rearranged in a liquid or solid. This process only requires a few hundred atoseconds, with atoseconds being one thousandth of one millionth of a second.

Electrons are sensitive to external fields, so researchers can easily control them by illuminating electrons with pulses of light. Once they temporarily form an electric field from atosecond pulses, the researchers can control electronic dynamics in real time.

This impulse allows us to examine the first moment of an electronic reaction in a molecule or crystal, the researchers explained. With its ability to form electric fields, we can control electronic movements to optimize long-term fundamental processes such as photosynthesis or the separation of material charges. Shaping of the electric field from atosecond pulses.

The team, which consists of theorists and experimental physicists from research institutes in the US, Russia, Germany, Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Hungary, Japan and Sweden, conducted FERMI experiments on free electron lasers (FEL) in Trieste / Italy.

This laser is the only one that offers a unique ability to synthesize radiation of different wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range with a fully controlled relative phase.

Atosecond pulses are the result of overlapping temporal harmonic lasers.

The scientists created a group of four laser harmonics with fundamental wavelengths using the non-regulator available at FERMI. This is a technical device that controls the movement of relativistic electron groups and thus leads to the generation of ultraviolet radiation. Shaping of the electric field from atosecond pulses.

One of the biggest challenges of this experiment is measuring these relative phases, which are characterized by the detection of photoelectrons released by neon atoms through a combination of atosecond and infrared pulses.

This leads to additional structures in the electronic spectrum, which are usually referred to as sidebands.

The scientists measured the relationship between the different sidebands produced for each laser shot. This finally allowed them to fully characterize the atosecond train. Shaping of the electric field from atosecond pulses.

Researchers say: These two aspects are the main strengths of our approach. The results will also affect the design and development of new free electron lasers throughout the world.