Mapping the origin of the immune system for new cancer immunotherapies, The first cell atlas of the human thymus can cause new immunotherapy against cancer and autoimmune diseases.

The researchers mapped thymic tissue throughout human life to understand how vital immune cells, called T cells, develop and form. In the future, this information can help researchers create artificial thymus and enhance therapeutic T cells. Mapping the origin of the immune system for new cancer immunotherapies.

This human thymus atlas reveals new cell types and identified signals that tell immature immune cells how to develop into T cells.

This atlas can also help scientists understand diseases that affect T cell development, such as: B. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), and Atlas Human Cell Initiative, which makes Google maps of the entire human body.

The thymus gland is located in the breast and produces T cells, important white blood cells that fight infection and disease. These T cells then leave the thymus to enter the bloodstream and other parts of the body and continue to mature. Mapping the origin of the immune system for new cancer immunotherapies.

T cells search for and destroy bacteria and viruses that attack and recognize and kill cancer cells.

Thymic development problems cause incorrect T cell production. This can cause severe immune deficiencies such as SCID and make people vulnerable to infection. Or, it can affect T cell regulation and cause autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

While mature T cells have been well studied, the development of the human thymus and the T cells they contain are not fully understood.

The researchers used single cell technology to isolate and analyze about 200,000 individual cells from the thymus and thymus tissue that develops in infants and adults.

They examine which genes are active in each cell to identify cells, discover new cell types, and use these genes as markers to map each cell to the right position in the thymus.

Therapeutic T cells are currently used in clinics to treat B cell lymphoma and leukemia cancer. The main disadvantage of this treatment, however, is the creation of correct T cell subtypes.

With this satin cell atlas, we break down cellular signals from the developing thymus and discover which genes must be involved to convert the initial immune precursor cells into certain T cells.

This is very interesting, because in the future this atlas can be used as a reference map for the development of T cells outside the body with the right properties to attack and kill certain cancers, creating special treatments for tumors.

Researchers say: We now have a very detailed understanding of how T cells form in healthy tissue. We were able to identify similar populations of progenitor cells in the thymus that are developing and in the liver and believe that these progenitors are important for initiating the development of T cells in the fetus and for making fully competent thymic organs. Mapping the origin of the immune system for new cancer immunotherapies.

This helps us put together a mosaic to get a more complete picture of the development of the immune system.

The unusual thymus in this case is the largest and most active in childhood and shrinks after puberty. The thymus is called the “pacemaker of life” and almost disappears at the age of 35. Understanding how the thymus develops and then dries can provide insight into aging and how the immune system changes during life. Mapping the origin of the immune system for new cancer immunotherapies.

This thymus map is an important part of the mission of the human cell atlas to describe each type of cell in the human body. Helps us to find out the path of development in the body and age-related decreases in the immune system.

Researchers say: It has applications in cellular engineering, including the ability to make artificial thymus for regenerative medicine.