Brain cells protect muscles from wear, While many of us worry about proteins that accumulate in our brain as we age and which can cause Alzheimer’s or other types of neurodegeneration.
We might not find that some of the same proteins accumulate in our muscles and atrophy. let the muscles get older.
The University of California at Berkeley has now discovered brain cells that help eliminate these complications and extend the life of at least worms (Caenorhabditis elegans) and possibly rats. .Brain cells protect muscles from wear
This can lead to drugs that improve muscle health or prolong the life of healthy people.
The latest findings from the research team, published in Science on January 24, are that only four glial cells in the worm’s brain control the stress response in cells throughout the body and extend the life of the worm by 75%.
This is surprising because glial cells are often ignored only as supporting cells for neurons that do the actual work of the brain, such as: B. Learning and memory.
This finding follows a study from 2013 in which the UC Berkeley team reported that neurons regulate stress responses in peripheral cells, although different from glial cells, and extend worm life by about 25%. In mice, increased nerve regulation increases life by about 10%. Brain cells protect muscles from wear
Together, these results provide an overview of the two-pronged brain approach to keeping body cells healthy.
For example, when the brain perceives a stressful environment that attacks bacteria or viruses, a group of neurons sends electrical signals to peripheral cells to mobilize them to respond to stress, e.g. B. by reducing tangles, increasing protein production and mobilizing stored cells. Fat.
However, because electrical signals only cause short-term responses, glial cells send long-lived but unknown hormones that maintain long-term anti-stress responses.
“We have found that when we put them in the brain, these reactions communicate to the periphery to protect the entire body from natural attacks of old age. It restores metabolism and also protects against protein buildup.” said the researcher. As a result of the new study: “We believe that glia will be more important than neurons.” Brain cells protect muscles from wear.
When you see people with sarcopenia or older mice and people, they have protein aggregates in their muscles, say researchers.
Dilleen examines cell damage simultaneously throughout the body as we age to death. He showed worms and mice that the hormones and neurotransmitters released by the brain keep this damage under control by activating the stress response in body cells and adjusting metabolism.
The answer might be to fight infection, with side effects keeping tissue healthy and prolonging life. The big question is why our cells stop responding to these signals as we get older.
Over the past decade, he and his colleagues have identified three techniques that worms use to make their cells healthy and durable. For example, activating the body’s heat shock response protects the cytoplasm of cells. Stimulation of an unprotected protein response protects cells that produce energy structures, mitochondria.
Protein response that is not folded is the cell’s way of ensuring that proteins take on the correct 3D structure, which is very important for the proper functioning of cells.
The latest finding is that glia and neurons stimulate a protein response that is not folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER is a cellular structure that contains protein-producing ribosomes, and it is believed that ER is responsible for folding and maturing a maximum of 13 million proteins per minute. Brain cells protect muscles from wear.
Two other steps also extend the life of the worm: limiting eating patterns that can cause other anti-aging mechanisms to play, and reducing the production of a hormone called insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1).
Researchers are currently trying to identify the signal hormones produced by these glial cells. This is the first step in finding ways to activate responses in cells with reduced function and possibly developing drugs that harmonize human cells and counteract the effects of aging, obesity, or other types of stress.
The researchers also found that worms lose weight when their lipid drops are converted to ER.
Other Texas research groups have shown that activating xbp-1 in mouse neurons also reduces fat storage and weakens mice, protects them from the effects of a high-fat diet, and prolongs their lives.