Joining forces to solve neutrino mass puzzle from china to the south pole, One of the most interesting challenges in modern physics is identifying the neutrino mass sequence.

Physicists from Cluster of Excellence PRISMA + at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) play a major role in new studies that show that the neutrino stack puzzle can finally be solved in the next few years.

This is due to the combined implementation of two new neutrino experiments currently under preparation. Improved IceCube trials at the South Pole and Jutgmen Neutrino Underground Observatory (JUNO) in China. Joining forces to solve neutrino mass puzzle from china to the south pole.

They will soon give physicists access to much more sensitive and complementary data on the neutrino mass sequence.

Neutrinos are made from natural sources in the sun or other astronomical objects, but also in large quantities from nuclear power plants.

However, they can pass through normal matter because the human body is practically unobstructed without leaving a trace of its presence.

This means that a very sophisticated method is needed, using a massive detector to observe this rare “ghost particle” reaction.

Neutrinos are available in three different versions: electron, muon, and tau neutrinos. You can switch from one type to another, a phenomenon that scientists call “neutrino oscillations”. It is possible to determine the mass of a particle from observing the vibration pattern. Joining forces to solve neutrino mass puzzle from china to the south pole.

For years physicists have been trying to find out which of the three neutrinos is the easiest and which is the most difficult. Professor Michael Warm, a physicist at PRISMA + Cluster of Excellence and at the JGU Physics Institute, which played an important role in the creation of the JUNO experiment in China, explained: “We believe that answering this question will make a major contribution to achieving long-term data about symmetry violations matter antimatter in the neutrinos sector will achieve its goal.

With this data we hope to understand once and for all reasons why matter and antimatter were not completely destroyed after the Big Bang.

The two large-scale experiments use very different and complementary methods to solve the neutrino puzzle.

The clear approach is to combine the expected results from both experiments, said Prof. Sebastian Boeser, also from PRISMA + Cluster of Excellence and the JGU Physics Institute, who studies neutrinos and makes important contributions to the IceCube experiment. Joining forces to solve neutrino mass puzzle from china to the south pole.

No sooner than finished. In the current edition of Physical Review D, IceCube researchers and JUNO employees publish a combined analysis of their experiments.

To do this, the authors simulate predicted experimental data as a function of measurement time for each experiment. The results vary depending on whether the neutrino mass is in the normal or reverse order.

The physicist then performs a statistical test and applies a combined analysis to the simulation results of the two experiments.

This shows the level of sensitivity with which both experiments can predict the correct sequence, or rather rule out a wrong sequence. Because the vibrational patterns observed in JUNO and IceCube depend on the actual order of the neutrino mass in a specific way for each experiment, the combined test has a significantly higher characteristic than individual experimental results. Joining forces to solve neutrino mass puzzle from china to the south pole.

In this way, the combination makes it possible to finally rule out misalignment of the neutrino mass in the measurement period of three to seven years.

In this case, the whole is really more than the sum of its parts, concluded Sebastian Boeser. “Here we have clear evidence of the effectiveness of complementary experimental approaches in solving other neutrino puzzles.

There is no experiment that can do this alone, whether it is an upgrade to IceCube, JUNO, or another experiment currently underway, added Michael Verm. In addition, this only shows what neutrino physicists can do together here at Mainz.