The accurate stem cell model of an early developing mouse embryo, Scientists have managed to generate complex embryonic-like structures from mouse embryonic stem cells.
These structures, called gastruloid, can now grow for the first time somites, tissue blocks which then develop in the spine and the muscles of the embryo.
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in creating sophisticated embryonic-like structures that represent stages of embryonic development that occur after implantation in the uterus.
With this model system, the subsequent stages of embryonic development can be examined on a plate.
During embryogenesis, fertilized eggs develop throughout the body. Little is known about the processes that control the development of mammalian embryos.
However, these embryos develop in the womb and are difficult to obtain in large numbers.
In 2014, these scientists first developed an embryonic structure, called gastruloid, from mouse stem cells.
Now they are improving the culture conditions to increase the similarity between the gastruloid and the embryo, producing a gastruloid that causes somites to grow. Somits are small “tissue blocks” that form the back of the embryo and then form the muscles of the spine and bones. The accurate stem cell model of an early developing mouse embryo.
Gastruloid is now more complex and resembles mouse embryos in more detail than previous models.
This is the first time we have succeeded in making a complex embryo-like structure that recapitulates the stages of embryonic development that usually occur after implantation in the uterus. “Vincent van Batenburg (Hubrecht Institute) added:” It is interesting to see that homogeneous cell groups can be arranged in structures such as embryos that create somites in bowls. “The accurate stem cell model of an early developing mouse embryo.
The scientists made a detailed comparison between gastruloid and embryo by examining the types of cells and tissues that exist in this structure. They also check where these cells and tissues are along the axis of the body to the head and tail, both in the gastruloid and in the embryo.
Because the combination of active genes determines cell types, they can examine these cell types by measuring which genes are active in each location in both the embryo and the gastruloid.
For this purpose, scientists have used modern technologies such as single cell sequencing and tomosequencing. Single cell sequencing can be used to measure the active set of genes in each cell, but does not provide location information for these cells.
Conversely, tomo sequencing is a method in which the embryo or gastruloid is cut into thin slices, in this case from head to tail, after which gene activity in each part is measured.
With this research, scientists show that gastruloid can now be used to study more complex processes that occur in embryos, such as: B. the process that regulates the formation of somites. Alexander van Oudenaarden: “The main advantage of this model system is that gastruloid can grow in large numbers. The accurate stem cell model of an early developing mouse embryo.
This means that we might be able to use it to test new drugs for developmental disorders or to test which compounds are toxic to embryonic development.
Scientists can also use gastruloid to study how embryonic defects occur, such as: B. Defects during heart and muscle development.