How calorie reduction prevents the negative effects of aging on cells, If you want to reduce the level of inflammation throughout the body, delay the onset of age-related diseases, and live longer, eat less.
This is the result of a new study by scientists from the US and China that provides the most comprehensive report to date on the cellular effects of a low-calorie diet in mice.
Although the benefits of calorie restriction have long been known, new insights show how this restriction can protect against aging in cell lines, as explained in Cell on February 27, 2020.
Researchers say: We already know that limiting calories increases life expectancy, but now we have shown all the changes that occur at the unicellular level to cause it. This gives us a goal so that we can finally take medicine to cure human aging.
Aging is the highest risk factor for many human diseases, including cancer, dementia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Calorie reduction has been shown in animal models as one of the most effective interventions against this age-related disease. How calorie reduction prevents the negative effects of aging on cells.
And although researchers know that individual cells experience many changes as they age, they don’t know how calorie restriction can affect these changes.
Animal nutrition is examined between the ages of 18 months and 27 months. (In humans, this is roughly the same as someone who follows a 50-70 year old calorie diet.)
Both at the beginning and at the end of the diet, Belmonte’s team isolated and analyzed a total of 168,703 cells from 40 cell types in 56 mice. Cells come from adipose tissue, liver, kidney, aorta, skin, bone marrow, brain and muscle.
In each isolated cell, the researchers used single cell gene sequencing technology to measure the level of gene activity.
They also check the overall composition of cell types in tissue. They then compared the old and young mice with each diet.
Many changes that occur when mice grow old in a normal diet are not observed in mice on a restricted diet; Even in old age, many animal tissues and cells that are fed are very similar to young mice. How calorie reduction prevents the negative effects of aging on cells.
Overall, 57 percent of age-related changes in cell composition observed in rat tissue with a normal diet were not found in mice on a low-calorie diet.
This approach not only shows us the effect of calorie restriction on this cell type, but also provides the most complete and detailed study of what happens at the level of a single cell during aging.
Some cells and genes that are most affected by nutrition are related to immunity, inflammation and fat metabolism. The number of immune cells in almost every tissue examined increased dramatically with the age of control mice, but was not affected by age in mice with reduced calories.
In brown adipose tissue, a low calorie, low calorie diet restores the expression level of many anti-inflammatory genes that have been observed in young animals.
The main finding of this study is that the increased inflammatory response during aging can be systematically suppressed by reducing calories.
The condition of your cells with age obviously depends on how you interact with your environment, including what and how much you eat. The team is now trying to use this information to identify targets for aging treatment and implement strategies to improve life and health.