Researchers have explored the origins of a ancient molecular partnership, Researchers have explored the origins of a billion year old molecular partnership to bringing the ancient history of two proteins back to life.
This interaction, known as allosteric regulation, occurs among many modern proteins, but how the trait develops is an unexplored area, researchers say.
For thousands of years, allosteric regulation has become an indispensable tool for cells.
Allosteric regulation is perhaps the biggest evolutionary step in the development of higher organisms.
The researchers want to find out how proteins and other molecules work together in atomic resolution and in real time.
Determining protein behavior when sending cellular signals, when binding to other molecules, or when chemical reactions are triggered quickly can offer scientists a new window for drug discovery.
Researchers decided to study a protein called Aurora A because it is very important for cell division disorders, can cause cancerous growth, and is involved in a pair of proteins called TPX2. Researchers have explored the origins of a ancient molecular partnership.
During cell division, Aurora A helps evenly distribute chromosomes between daughter cells. In addition to the active protein center, TPX2 binds to the “allosteric site” of the Aurora A. site.
Then TPX2 brings Aurora A to the scene and converts protein to high teeth.
Organisms in the evolutionary tree produce protein versions of Aurora A and TPX2.
Experiments in the laboratory allowed the Kern team to map the history of interrelated proteins. Initially, around 1.5 billion years ago, Aurora A had to activate itself without TPX2.
With the advent of TPX2, about half a billion years later, this protein increases Aurora A’s productivity by bringing it to work.
Because the merger with TPX2 increased the effectiveness of Aurora A, the partnership continued.
This gives the two proteins time to enter into more complex relationships, Kern said. Over time, TPX2 has taken on a new role as the driving force of Aurora A. Today, the modern Aurora A / TPX2 pair can run ten times faster than Aurora A alone.
And when Kern’s team combined the old Aurora A with modern TPX2, they found that despite nearly a billion years of evolution, the two proteins surprisingly bind between them.
This is not expected, researchers say. Conventional wisdom states that proteins that work together also develop together, so changes in one pair go hand in hand with complementary changes on the other side. Researchers have explored the origins of a ancient molecular partnership.
According to researchers, the current TPX2 might accumulate too many changes to connect with old partners.
The parts of Aurora A and TPX2 that touch basically remain the same for 1 billion years, according to the research team, even if other parts of the protein move and shift over time.
Researchers say: Although there is a long way to go between identifying allosteric protein sites and developing drugs that can actually benefit from them.