Black hole in phoenix galaxy clusters allows their galaxy to awaken

The galaxies at the center of their clusters contain have the largest supermassive black holes known. In the case of the Phoenix Cluster, the black hole in its core has a mass equivalent to 5.8 billion suns and the weakened Black hole allows awaken their galaxy researchers found.

Center of galaxy clusters have the largest supermassive black holes known. In the case of the Phoenix Cluster, the black hole in its core has a mass equivalent to 5.8 billion suns.

Now the researchers said the black hole allows awaken their and Chandra X-rays show hot gas in purple, and VLA radios emit red light.

Hubble light data shows galaxies (yellow) and colder strands of gas that form stars (light blue).

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/M.McDonald et al; Radio: NRAO/VLA; Optical: NASA/STScI

Galaxy clusters are the largest structures in space united by gravity and consist of hundreds or even thousands of galaxies embedded in hot gas and invisible dark matter.

The galaxies at the center of their clusters contain the largest known supermassive black holes. In the case of the Phoenix Cluster, the black hole at its core has a mass of 5.8 billion suns.

For decades, astronomers have discovered large black holes that pump energy into their environment and keep the surrounding gas too warm to form many stars.

Previous work has shown that the largest galaxy in the Universe has no cold gas at its center and far fewer stars than expected.

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/M.McDonald et al; Radio: NRAO/VLA; Optical: NASA/STScI

The Phoenix Cluster System consists of various elements that tell the story of the formation of an unusually high star. Chandra’s data shows that the coolest gas is near the center of the cluster.

In the absence of a significant heat source, astronomers expect the highest speed cooling to occur in the middle of the cluster where the densest gas is located.

Hubble’s observations provide evidence of further cooling of the gas near the center of the Phoenix Cluster.

Along the filament in the north and south of the black hole is ten billion solar masses from colder gases, possibly due to the explosion of a super-massive black hole centered on the image.

The eruption produced jets that were observed in VLA radio waves in two opposite directions. As the nozzles slide out, they blow cavities or bubbles into the hot gas that enters the cluster. Chandra’s sharp X-ray showed this gap.

Cold gas filaments are located around cavity boundaries, leading the authors to conclude that the eruption of a black hole removes gas from the black hole.

The farther away from the black hole, the faster the gas can cool and form stars. In the center of the group the Phoenix star forms at about 500 solar masses per year. For comparison, in the Milky Way, stars form at a rate of about one solar mass per year.

Ultimately, the black hole responsible for these jets creates turbulence, sound waves, and shock waves (similar to the sound arrows produced by supersonic aircraft).

This in turn provides a source of heat and prevents further cooling until the plague stops and the accumulation of coolant gas begins. The whole cycle can then be repeated.

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