Researchers have discovered that these microbial minions, known as human microbiomes, kill tens of thousands of proteins so small that they were not known in previous studies.
Proteins belonging to more than 4,000 new biological families which are believed to be involved in other processes in the fight between different bacterial strains.
because they are involved in communication of the coveted biological niche cells between germs and their voluntary hosts excellence is an important day for daily homework day, keep bacteria happy and healthy.
Because they are so small with less than 50 amino acids, proteins tend to fold in unique shapes, representing biological building blocks that were not previously identified.
If the shape and function of these proteins can be reproduced in the laboratory, they can help researchers gain a scientific understanding of the impact of microbiome on human health and pave the way for new drug discoveries.
These functions are likely to be found in very small proteins, which are more likely to be excreted outside the cell than larger proteins. However, the insignificant amount of protein makes it difficult to identify and test it with conventional methods.
We are more likely to make mistakes than to guess correctly when we predict which bacterial DNA sequences contain this tiny gene, researchers say. So far, we have systematically ignored their existence. That is a clear blind spot.
It might be frightening for the uninitiated to think too deeply about the large number of bacteria that live in and in each of us. They represent more cells in and in the human body than real human cells.
But this little passenger is rarely dangerous. Instead, they help digest our food supplements and generally keep us up to date. However, in many cases, it is difficult to separate the molecular details behind this partnership.
Bhat and his colleagues wondered whether the answer was found in a small protein that they knew was likely to be transmitted through tissue broadcast by other microbiome oriented studies. It is more likely than their larger cousins that a small protein will slip through the cell membrane to send messages or threats to neighboring hosts or to bacterial cells.
The bacterial genome resembles a book with a long row of letters, only a few of which contain the information needed by protein researchers. Traditionally, we have identified the presence of protein-coding genes in this book by looking for letter combinations that indicate start and stop signals that include genes.
This works well for larger proteins, but the smaller the protein, the more likely the technique is to produce a large number of false positive results that falsify results.
To overcome this problem, he again decided to compare potential small protein coding genes among many different microbes and probes. Those who are identified repeatedly in several species and samples are more likely to be the true positives they believe. When they applied the analysis to a large amount of data, the researchers did not find the hundreds of genes they and Bhat had hoped for, but tens of thousands.
Proteins that are likely to be encoded by genes can be grouped into more than 4,000 related groups or families that tend to be involved in important biological processes such as intracellular communication and warfare, as well as the maintenance tasks required by bacteria. stay healthy.
The researchers confirmed that the gene code for protein is real. They show that they are transcribed into RNA and transferred to ribosomes to translate important steps in protein production in all organisms.
They are now working with staff to learn more about the function of proteins and to identify those that might be important for bacteria that are fighting for space in our flooded intestinal carpet. Such proteins can function as antibiotics or new drugs for human use.
Further Reading: Standford university