The cause of cancer is identified by their DNA template, The cause of cancer is catalyzed by large-scale international research that reveals genetic traces of the DNA destruction process that drives the development of cancer.
Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Singapore’s Duke-NUS Medical School, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, MIT Broad Institute, and Harvard and their colleagues around the world have listed the most comprehensive genetic footprint to date. and provides clues as to how each cancer develops. The cause of cancer is identified by their DNA template.
Using these fingerprints, scientists can look for previously unknown chemicals, biological pathways and environmental factors responsible for the development of cancer.
The study, published today in Nature (February 5) as part of a global cancer project, is designed to help understand the causes of cancer, identify prevention strategies, and sign new guidelines for cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Also published today in the journal Nature and related are 22 other studies from the Cancer Project.
The collaboration, which involved more than 1,300 scientists and clinicians from 37 countries, analyzed more than 2,600 genomes from 38 different tumor types. This project is an unprecedented international study of the cancer genome that significantly enhances our basic understanding of cancer and zero mechanism of cancer development.
In England, a person is diagnosed with cancer every two minutes. 363,000 new cancer cases are diagnosed each year. This disease causes around 165,000 deaths in the UK every year.
Cancer is caused by genetic changes – mutations – in cell DNA that allow cells to divide uncontrollably. Many well-known causes of cancer, such as UV rays and smoking, leave traces of damage to DNA known as a sign of mutation. This fingerprint helps you understand how cancer develops and how it can be prevented. The cause of cancer is identified by their DNA template.
However, previous studies were not large enough to identify potential mutation signatures.
The fingerprint study identified new mutation signatures that had never been observed before, from a single mutation to the insertion and deletion of a slightly larger genetic code.
The result is the largest reference mutation signature database to date.
Only about half of all mutational signatures are known to be the cause, but this resource can now be used to find more of these causes and to better understand the development of cancer.
Professor Stephen Rosen, lead author at Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, said: “Some types of DNA fingerprints or signatures of these mutations reflect how cancer can respond to treatment.
Further study of this problem can help diagnose certain types of cancer and determine what medications they might respond to. ”
Gad Getz, lead author at MIT Broad Institute and Harvard and Massachusetts Hospitals, said: The presence of a large number of whole genomes allows us to use more advanced analytic methods to identify and correct mutation signatures and expand our studies in other ways. mutation.
Our new signature collection provides a more complete picture of biological and chemical processes that damage or repair DNA, and allows researchers to decode the mutation process that affects the newly acquired cancer genome.
Another study from the Pan Cancer project, published today in Nature, found that larger and more complex genetic changes that rearrange DNA can also act as signatures of mutations and indicate the cause of cancer. Researchers from the Welcom Sanger Institute and MIT Broad Institute, as well as from Harvard and colleagues, found 16 of these signatures, which ranged from rearranging individual genes to entire chromosomes.
The Global Cancer Project is the largest and most comprehensive study of all cancer genomes to date.
This collaboration has created enormous resources for the primary cancer genome available to researchers throughout the world to advance cancer research.