The new method to trace the chromosomes in individual cells, The spatial position of genetic material in the cell nucleus plays an important role in the development of the body.
A research team from the University of Basel, in collaboration with scientists from Harvard University, has developed a method for tracking the chromosomes of individual cells.
With this method, they have been able to show that chromosomes reorganize during embryonic development.
Our body consists of many cells with many functions. Be it heart, liver, or nerve cells, all have the same genetic information.
The reason why cells develop differently is that only part of their chromosomes are read. As a result, some genes are active while others remain silent. The new method to trace the chromosomes in individual cells.
Both types of gene packaging and spatial organization in the cell nucleus play an important role in gene activation.
Using new techniques, they are able to trace individual chromosomes during embryonic development in nematodes and show that they are rearranged in the initial phase.
When stretched, all DNA molecules per cell will reach a length of about two meters. Therefore, DNA must be tightly packed so that it matches the nucleus of only a few micrometers in size.
The strands of DNA are wrapped very tightly and twisted to form spatial preservation structures called chromosomes. The new method to trace the chromosomes in individual cells.
The packaging and regulation of chromosomal DNA determines gene activity.
Chromosome regions with similar functional properties are known to interact and interact. This means that the chromosome domain is divided into two compartments, active and inactive.
Researchers have found that to achieve this cylindrical arrangement, protein tissue is needed from protein tissue located on the surface of the cell nucleus. The lamina is bound to an inactive area and stretches the chromosomes.
Only in the later stages of embryonic development, when the germ layer develops, do we really see the known separation in active and inactive areas, researchers explained. The new method to trace the chromosomes in individual cells.
Using chromosome tracking, we can map the entire architecture of 3D chromosomes and show for the first time that chromosomes rearrange during the initial development, the maturation process that requires a core layer.
Chromosome reorganization accompanies cell maturation and is an important milestone in the development of complex organisms. Proper chromosome architecture is very important to prevent developmental disorders.