Upcoming interplanetary missions details

2019 July 14 – Chandrayaan 2 – Launch of ISRO (India) lunar orbiter, lander, and rover

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission comprising an orbiter and a soft lander carrying a rover, scheduled to launch to the Moon in July 2019. The primary objective of Chandrayaan-2 is to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Scientific goals include studies of lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.

2019 Late – Chang’e 5 – Launch of Chinese lunar sample return mission

The Chang’e 5 Test or Precursor Mission (Chang’e 5-T1) is China’s next step in its lunar program to pave the way to sample return missions to the Moon as early as 2017. Chang’e 5-T1 will demonstrate a re-entry capsule at realistic re-entry speeds that would occur on a lunar sample return mission. For that, Chang’e 5-T1 will conduct a circumlunar flight with a duration of eight days – launching from China on October 23, 2014 and entering a circumlunar Free Return trajectory back to Earth for landing on October 31/November 1.

China laid out its lunar plans in the early 2000’s, identifying three phases of the country’s lunar project – I) complete orbital missions to study the lunar surface, II) conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s surface with a lander and rover, and III) return sample material from the lunar surface as part of a robotic mission.

Phase I and II have been completed by the Chinese over the past years celebrating great successes with the Chang’e 1 and 2 lunar orbiters and the Chang’e 3 lander and rover. Work is currently underway to fulfill the objectives of Phase III with one or two lunar sample return missions before 2020.

2019 December – Hayabusa 2 – Japanese sample return mission leaves asteroid Ryugu

Hayabusa 2 is a Japanese mission launched in December 2014 on a six-year mission to study the asteroid Ryugu and to collect samples to bring to Earth for analysis.

  • The Hayabusa 2 spacecraft arrived at the asteroid in June 2018.
  • The spacecraft deployed two rovers and a small lander onto the surface.
  • Hayabusa 2 fired an impactor into the asteroid in February 2019 to create an artificial crater. This allowed the spacecraft to collect a sample from beneath the surface of the asteroid.
  • Hayabusa 2 will bring the asteroid sample to Earth in 2020

2020 July – OSIRIS-Rex – Sample collection from asteroid Bennu

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx, currently orbiting asteroid 101955 Bennu, will be the first U.S. mission to bring an asteroid sample to Earth.

  • OSIRIS-REx will spend two years mapping Bennu, a potentially hazardous asteroid that could one day threaten Earth.
  • The maps will be used to select the site where the spacecraft will use its robotic arm to collect regolith, or loose dust and broken rocks from the surface of the asteroid. The sample will weigh at least 2.1 ounces (59.5 grams)
  • The sample will be stored on the spacecraft and delivered to Earth in September 2023.

2020 July – ExoMars 2020 – Launch of ESA Mars rover and Russian surface platform

ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) is a two-astrobiological project to prove life on Mars, a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roskosmos. The first part, launched in 2016, sits monitoring the orbitatora of gas that orbits Mars and falls triggering the Schiaparelli EDM (which falls). The second part is planned to begin in July 2020, when the Kozachok charity sends roveland to Franklin’s surface, maintaining a scientific mission which is expected to continue until 2022 or more.

The purpose of ExoMars is to investigate the signs of past life on Mars, exploring how diverse water and the geochemical environment of Mars tracks traces of atmospheric gas and its sources, showing technology for the return of future Mars mission Search

On March 14, 2016 the Orbiter Trace Gas (TGO) and experimental stationery collector named Schiaparelli  were published. TGOs entered orbit on Mars on October 19, 2016 and continued to map the source of methane (CH
4) and other gases in the atmosphere of Mars, which can provide an indication of possible biological or geological activity. TGO has four tools and will act as communication satellites. Schiaparelli’s experimental side was separated from the TGO on October 16 and maneuvered at Meridiani Planum, but fell to land on the surface of Mars. Landing will test new key technologies for the safe implementation of the 2020 missile mission.

2020 July – Hope – Launch of United Arab Emirates Mars orbiter

Mission of Hope Mars (Arabic: مسبار الأمل), also known as the Emirates Mars Mission, a mission called the Space Exploration of Mars, was built to study by the United Arab Emirates and is planned to be released in 2020 by any Arab country or Muslim country. The investigation will examine the climate every day and through seasonal cycles, meteorological phenomena in the lower atmosphere such as dust storms and weather on Mars in various geographical regions. The investigation will try to answer science questions, why does the atmosphere of Mars in space lose hydrogen and oxygen and is the cause of dramatic climate change on Mars.

This mission is carried out by a team of engineers from the United Arab Emirates working with foreign research institutions and contributing to the knowledge-based economy in the UAE. Investigation is called Harapan or Al-Amal (arab اللأمل) and will reach Mars in 2021, to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the United Arab Emirates.

2020 July/August – Mars 2020 – Launch of NASA Mars rover

The 2020 Mars rover mission is scheduled for the Mars Exploration Program at NASA starting July 17, 2020 and touches on the crater lake on Mars on February 18, 2021 and history, including evaluations of previous residences, possible Mars life and Potential to obtain biosignatures in accessible geological materials . He will store samples of ships along their route for possible Mars contact missions in the future.

At present, the unnamed Mars 2020 mission was announced by NASA on December 4, 2012, at the autumn meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco. The Rover design comes from Rover’s curiosity and has built and tested many components, including various scientific instruments and the use of basic training.

In June 2019, NASA announced that in the autumn of 2019, a naming contest would be held for students to determine the name of the explorer.

2020 December – Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) – Launch of South Korean mission to the Moon

The Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is South Korea’s first lunar mission. It is developed and managed by the Korea Aerospace Reasearch Institute (KARI) and is scheduled to launch in 2020 to orbit the Moon for 1 year carrying an array of South Korean experiments and one U.S. built instrument. The objectives are to develop indigenous lunar exploration technologies, demonstrate a “space internet”, and conduct scientific investigations of the lunar environment, topography, and resources, as well as identify potential landing sites for future missions.

2020 December – Hayabusa 2 – Japanese asteroid Ryugu sampling mission returns to Earth

Hayabusa 2 will bring the asteroid sample to Earth in 2020

2020 – Chang’e 6 – Launch of Chinese lunar sample return mission

The spacecraft brings lunar samples to the earth

2021 July – Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) – Launch of NASA impactor to binary asteroid Didymos

Asteroid Redirection The Dual Mission (DART) has directed the Glenn Research Center with the help of several centers of NASA Jet Laboratory (GRC) and the Langley Research Center (LRC).

DART is a technology-based planetary test to prevent the impact of dangerous asteroids on Earth. DART is the first demonstration of kinetic impact technology that changes the movement of asteroids in space. The DART mission is in the APL phase and is managed by NASA NASA, the Space Flight Center for the Planet Defense Coordination Office and the Planet Research Department at Washington headquarters in Washington.

2021 October 16 – Lucy – Launch of NASA flyby mission to multiple Trojan asteroids

Jupiter’s swarms of Trojan asteroids may be remnants of the primordial material that formed the outer planets, and serve as time capsules from the birth of our Solar System more than 4 billion years ago. The Trojans orbit in two loose groups that orbit the Sun, with one group always ahead of Jupiter in its path, the other always behind. At these two Lagrange points the bodies are stabilized by the Sun and Jupiter in a gravitational balancing act.

These primitive bodies hold vital clues to deciphering the history of the solar system, and perhaps even the origins of life and organic material on Earth.

Lucy will be the first space mission to study the Trojans. The mission takes its name from the fossilized human ancestor (called “Lucy” by her discoverers) whose skeleton provided unique insight into humanity’s evolution. Likewise, the Lucy mission will revolutionize our knowledge of planetary origins and the formation of the solar system.

Lucy will launch in October 2021 and, with boosts from Earth’s gravity, will complete a 12-year journey to seven different asteroids — a Main Belt asteroid and six Trojans, the last two members of a “two-for-the-price-of-one” binary system. Lucy’s complex path will take it to both clusters of Trojans and give us our first close-up view of all three major types of bodies in the swarms (so-called C-, P- and D-types).

The dark-red P- and D-type Trojans resemble those found in the Kuiper Belt of icy bodies that extends beyond the orbit of Neptune. The C-types are found mostly in the outer parts of the Main Belt of asteroids, between Mars and Jupiter. All of the Trojans are thought to be abundant in dark carbon compounds. Below an insulating blanket of dust, they are probably rich in water and other volatile substances.

2021 – Chang’e 7 – Launch of Chinese lunar survey mission

2022 August – Psyche – Launch of orbiter mission to main belt asteroid 16 Psyche

The Psyche mission is a journey to a unique metal asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. What makes the asteroid Psyche unique is that it appears to be the exposed nickel-iron core of an early planet, one of the building blocks of our solar system.

Deep within rocky, terrestrial planets – including Earth – scientists infer the presence of metallic cores, but these lie unreachably far below the planets’ rocky mantles and crusts. Because we cannot see or measure Earth’s core directly, Psyche offers a unique window into the violent history of collisions and accretion that created terrestrial planets.

The mission is led by Arizona State University. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for mission management, operations and navigation. The spacecraft’s solar-electric propulsion chassis will be built by Maxar (formerly SSL) with a payload that includes an imager, magnetometer, and a gamma-ray spectrometer.

2023 September – OSIRIS-Rex – Returns to Earth with sample of asteroid Bennu

NASA’s OSIRIS-REx, currently orbiting asteroid 101955 Bennu, will be the first U.S. mission to bring an asteroid sample to Earth.

  • OSIRIS-REx will spend two years mapping Bennu, a potentially hazardous asteroid that could one day threaten Earth.
  • The maps will be used to select the site where the spacecraft will use its robotic arm to collect regolith, or loose dust and broken rocks from the surface of the asteroid. The sample will weigh at least 2.1 ounces (59.5 grams)
  • The sample will be stored on the spacecraft and delivered to Earth in September 2023.
2023-2025 – Europa Clipper – Launch of NASA Jupiter Orbiter to study Europa
The mission will place a spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter in order to perform a detailed investigation of Europa — a world that shows strong evidence for an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust and which could host conditions favorable for life. The mission will send a highly capable, radiation-tolerant spacecraft into a long, looping orbit around Jupiter to perform repeated close flybys of the icy moon.

NASA has selected nine science instruments for the mission. The selected payload includes cameras and spectrometers to produce high-resolution images of Europa’s surface and determine its composition. An ice penetrating radar will determine the thickness of the moon’s icy shell and search for subsurface lakes similar to those beneath Antarctica’s ice sheet. The mission will also carry a magnetometer to measure the strength and direction of the moon’s magnetic field, which will allow scientists to determine the depth and salinity of its ocean. Gravity measurements will also help confirm the existence of Europa’s subsurface ocean.

A thermal instrument will survey Europa’s frozen surface in search of recent eruptions of warmer water at or near the surface, while additional instruments will search for evidence of water and tiny particles in the moon’s thin atmosphere. NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope observed water vapor above the south polar region of Europa in 2012, providing potential evidence of water plumes. If the plumes’ existence is confirmed — and they’re linked to a subsurface ocean — studying their composition will help scientists investigate the chemical makeup of Europa’s potentially habitable environment while minimizing the need to drill through layers of ice.

During the nominal mission, the spacecraft will perform 45 flybys of Europa at closest-approach altitudes varying from 1700 miles to 16 miles (2700 kilometers to 25 kilometers) above the surface.

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